oa Southern African Journal of Epidemiology and Infection - An overview of nosocomial pneumonia
A nosocomial infection is an infection acquired by a patient as a result of hospitalisation or contact with the hospital environment that was neither present nor incubating at the time of the patient's visit or admission to hospital. Infections are generally considered to be nosocomial if acquired < 48-72 hours following hospital admission. Nosocomial pneumonia (NP) or hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is defined as pneumonia occurring < 48 hours after hospital admission that was neither present nor incubating at the time of admission to hospital. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as pneumonia occurring in a patient undergoing mechanical ventilation that was neither present nor incubating at the time of intubation (occurring < 48 hours after intubation). Recently, the term "healthcare-associated pneumonia" (HCAP) has been included in the description of NPs and this entity includes all patients who have been hospitalised in an acute care hospital for two or more days within 90 days of the infection, resided in a nursing home or long term facility, received intravenous antibiotic therapy, chemotherapy or wound care within the past 30 days of the current infection or attended a hospital haemodialysis clinic.
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