SA Pharmaceutical Journal - Volume 73, Issue 2, 2006
Volume 73, Issue 2, 2006
Antiviral agents for prevention and / or treatment of influenza virus infections : old and new : clinicalAuthor Charles FeldmanSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 73, pp 8 –11 (2006)More Less
Yearly epidemics of influenza are a cause of considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide.
Influenza vaccination is the primary means of prevention of infection and its complications.
Antiviral agents are an adjunct to vaccination for control and prevention of influenza infection, but should never be used as a substitute for vaccination.
Two classes of antiviral agents are available for the prevention and treatment of influenza infection, the adamantanes and the neuraminidase inhibitors.
Adamantanes block the M2 protein channels of the influenza A virus and prevent uncoating of the virus inside the cells, so inhibiting replication.
The neuraminidase inhibitors block the activity of viral neuraminidase, so preventing the release of newly formed viruses from cells.
Amantadine, an adamantane available in South Africa, is 70 - 90% effective in preventing illness caused by influenza A infection, and when administered within 2 days of onset of illness can reduce the duration of uncomplicated influenza A infection.
Cysteine-containing cyclic dipeptides as potential cytotoxic, antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory agents : cum laudeAuthor Michael KlosSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 73, pp 12 –15 (2006)More Less
Author Dennis A. DaveySource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 73, pp 16 –22 (2006)More Less
The menopause is an ideal time to make a comprehensive health review.
Decisions about HRT rest with each woman after consultation with her doctor.
Decision-making requires an individual 'medical judgement'.
The absolute and attributable risks and benefits of HRT as well as the relative risks must be considered.
Statistical significance does not always imply clinical significance.
Conclusions from relatively older groups of women in WHI trials do not necessarily apply to younger postmenopausal women.
Younger postmenopausal women have more distressing menopausal symptoms and much lower absolute risks.
For many women the immediate need for relief of menopausal symptoms outweighs consideration of both long-term risks and benefits.
Age, severity of symptoms, medical status and history are key factors in decision-making.
HRT is the most effective treatment for vasomotor symptoms and enables many women to live full and active lives without embarrassment or distress.
Author P.I.A. BillSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 73, pp 26 –31 (2006)More Less
Headache is a common presenting complaint.
History is the most important tool for diagnosis.
There are 2 major types of headache disorder - primary and secondary.
There are certain features that are cause for concern, for example, onset of a new headache after the age of 50, new-onset headache in a patient with HIV, headache associated with pregnancy.
Most chronic daily headaches are benign.
Analgesic overuse is a common cause of chronic daily headache.
Author Ryan KohlerSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 73, pp 38 –39 (2006)More Less
Lack of physical activity results in overweight and unfit people.
People generally ask their healthcare practitioner for advice on diet and exercise in order to look better.
Regular physical activity contributes to overall wellbeing and not simply to improved appearance.
Total physical fitness results in improved muscle strength, improved muscle resistance, flexibility and cardiovascular fitness.
This can be achieved by exercising for at least 30 minutes for a minimum of 3 times a week. Cycling, swimming, walking and running are excellent forms of exercise because they use the large muscle groups.
People should aim to exercise at 70 - 80% of their maximum heart rate (calculated as 220 minus age - unless on rate-reducing cardiovascular drugs).
Craniosacral therapy : "Gentle manipulation to normalise cerebrospinal circulation" : complementary and alternative medicineAuthor Ilse TruterSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 73, pp 44 –46 (2006)More Less