SA Pharmaceutical Journal - Volume 83, Issue 4, 2016
Volume 83, Issue 4, 2016
Author Lorraine OsmanSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 83 (2016)More Less
The four highways along which South Africans are marching to their graves
Does this shock you? It shocked me when I read it. The Minister of Health used this sentence in his Budget Vote speech on 10 May 2016. He carried on to explain that the four highways are the four colliding epidemics of the quadruple burden of diseases. You don't need me to remind you what they are, but just in case you're very young (or very old) or out of the country, they are HIV, AIDS and TB, maternal and child mortality, non-communicable diseases, and injury, violence and trauma.
If you don't feel the movement, you're probably going nowhere - moving forward as a team : president's messageAuthor Sarel MalanSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 83 (2016)More Less
When you are in a boat and you don't feel the movement of the water, you are probably still on dry land, and a stable boat on land is going nowhere. When you get to the water and start going somewhere, you also don't need people who rock the boat or who drill holes in your boat. Once there are holes however, you can't continue bailing out water, you need to plug the holes to move forward with the realisation that after each wave that you overcome, there will be others just as big or bigger to surmount. During the last few years, pharmacy in South Africa has had to face several challenges and though all challenges can not necessarily be turned into opportunities, several valuable lessons were learned and new opportunities were embraced. The advent of dispensing doctors in the 1990's caused a huge ripple in the whole profession, even decreasing the interest of students to study pharmacy by 50% or more. This however led to pharmacists rethinking their role in pharmaceutical care delivery and probably contributed significantly to the increased role of pharmacists in initiating therapy for selected diseases and PCDT. Soon the situation was normalised and student numbers went back to pre-dispensing doctor numbers.
Source: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 83, pp 6 –7 (2016)More Less
Earlier this year, the National Executive Committee of the PSSA decided to use the services of RefreshConnect, a communications company, to assist us with writing and releasing statements to the media about current health issues in which pharmacists can assist the public.
Author Mariet EksteenSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 83 (2016)More Less
The Young Pharmacists' Group (YPG) of the PSSA initiated a First Timers Networking programme at the 2016 SAAHIP conference in March. The aim of this project was to welcome all conference attendees who attended the SAAHIP conference for the first time (which was about 40 pharmacists) and to provide them with an opportunity and the confidence to network with other pharmacists at conference.
Author Haley SmithSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 83, pp 9 –12 (2016)More Less
Reflux is a normal process that occurs in healthy infants, children and adults. Most episodes are short-lived and do not cause bothersome symptoms of complications. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) develops when the reflux of stomach acid causes troublesome reflux-associated symptoms and/or complications. The most common symptom of GORD is heartburn. Depending on how severe the symptoms of GORD are, treatment may involve one or more of the following: lifestyle changes, medications, or surgery.Acid suppressive medications include, in increasing order of potency, over-the-counter antacids, alginates and H2 antagonists at nonprescription strength, prescription strength H2 antagonists and proton pump inhibitors. In patients with mild to moderate GORD, symptom severity and previous treatments can guide the selection of an initial acid suppressive regimen. The most common and effective treatment of oesophagitis and GORD is to reduce gastric acid secretion with a proton pump inhibitor.
Source: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 83, pp 14 –19 (2016)More Less
Vitamins are either fat- or water-soluble micronutrients that are derived from a healthy, well-balanced diet. The B-complex vitamins are well-known examples of water-soluble nutrients that are readily absorbed from a healthy gut, and easily eliminated via renal excretion. They are required for their vital physiological functions and are significant contributors to the maintenance of optimal health. Multiple B-vitamin deficiencies are quite common. Therefore, a balanced diet, including a full spectrum of B vitamins, is usually needed when any of them are found to be deficient. Conversely, their therapeutic value is limited to supplementation during states of deficiency since they have no additional benefits in the presence of an adequate dietary intake. In general, their active supplementation should only be used to correct deficiencies. This article provides an overview of B-complex vitamin deficiencies and their supplementation.
Source: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 83, pp 21 –29 (2016)More Less
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder that is commonly diagnosed and involves the academic, social and family functioning of the child. Prevalence of the disorder is approximately 5.3% worldwide and occurs mostly in boys. The consequences of ADHD may be substance abuse and other personality disorders, e.g. delinquency. Research has indicated that drug or behavioural interventions may decrease the rate of conduct and personality disorders. Diet therapy may include polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish oil) and iron supplements in children with low ferritin levels which may improve ADHD symptoms. Drug therapy that involves stimulants (methylphenidate) has been proven to be effective with a good safety profile. However, concerns have been raised about cardiac, psychiatric and growth side-effects. The non-stimulants (atomoxetine) have no abuse potential and reduce insomnia. They also have a better effect on growth in children. Other therapies include antidepressants and α2 -agonists. It is important to treat each patient using individualised therapy. The role of the pharmacist is important to monitor and minimise side-effects. New treatment options comprise modified formulations of currently available medicines.
Source: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 83, pp 30 –38 (2016)More Less
Tobacco smoking is a global public health problem, estimated to cause over 6 million deaths per year, including more than half a million non-smokers, dying of second-hand tobacco smoke. Smoking rates in South Africa have been declining over the last 20 years since the implementation of tobacco control measures, although the current prevalence of smoking is high (18.9%) with rates amongst males being five times higher than females. Similar to the rest of the world, smoking is also a leading cause of death in South Africa, with its risk factors exacerbated by tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus infection and non-communicable diseases. Tobacco control has major economic benefits for the health system, hence the importance of key policies combatting tobacco use as well as smoking cessation interventions. An overview of the pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment interventions is provided, with a focus on the application of smoking cessation interventions in routine practice to ensure successful quitting.
Author Joggie HattinghSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 83 (2016)More Less
Most pharmacists will from time to time do locum work. Sometimes the drive will be the extra income generated, but at times it is simply done as a favour to a colleague, to allow them to take a break or to attend a wedding. Whatever the circumstances, most of us are aware of how hard it has become for a pharmacist in a rural setting to find a locum and how prohibitively expensive the luxury of having a locum has become.
Source: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 83 (2016)More Less
Annually each academic institution awards an inscribed Academy medallion to the top academic student in each year of the BPharm degree, in recognition of the excellence in pharmaceutical sciences that is achieved at undergraduate level. This month, we bring you the 2015 winners from six of the eight schools of pharmacy.
Author Gary S. BlackSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 83, pp 47 –48 (2016)More Less
Despite the ease of electronic record keeping, stock control and dispensing systems, there are still many instances of pharmacists getting into trouble for not having their Schedule 6 medicine registers balanced and up to date. Anyone who has worked in a busy dispensary knows how quickly and easily this can happen. Nevertheless, perhaps we need to be reminded of the reasons why it is important to record purchases and supply of S6 medicines accurately and responsibly.
Author Aleta WegeSource: SA Pharmaceutical Journal 83 (2016)More Less
To celebrate World Asthma Day on 3 May 2016, Helderberg Hospital Pharmacy partnered with Gideon Kempen, representative from Cipla. Cipla is the main supplier of inhalers to the Department of Health. Gideon spent the week at Helderberg Hospital, counselling asthmatic patients using inhalers. He set up a table in the pharmacy waiting area and gave short educational talks to patients. Those patients receiving inhalers were referred to Gideon by the pharmacists and doctors.