n Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences - A pilot study on the levels of some toxic and non-toxic elements in urine samples of university students

Volume 2, Issue 6
  • ISSN : 2141-7016
This is currently unavailable for purchase.



This study was conducted to determine the levels and relationship between toxic elements - lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) on one hand, and on the other mineral elements - sodium (Na), potassium (K), and phosphorus (P), in urine samples of 40 university students aged between 19-35 years. Subjects were admitted into the study after being certified apparently healthy by the physician. Determination of Pb and Cd were carried out by Atomic Absorption Spectro-photometric method; while Na and K were assayed using Flame Photometry. Phosphate determination was carried out by phosphomolybdic acid method. The results showed that urine Pb levels were higher in the males, 25-35 years age-group than in the females. Also male smokers had higher level than their female non smokers counterparts (p<05). Cadmium was undetectable in all subject groups. The mean levels of Na determined were between 41.32 - 67.2, 33.8 - 68.8, 32.44 - 57.5 (ppm) for female non smokers, male non smokers and male smokers respectively. Potassium levels were between 25.2 - 35.4, 24.3 - 34.1 and 23.2 - 31.8 (ppm) in that order. Negative correlation was found between urinary Pb and Na excretion in male and female non-smokers. These results support the reported cases of Pb determination in foods and sera samples of some Nigerian populations.

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Article metrics loading...


This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error