1887

n Stads- en Streeksbeplanning = Town and Regional Planning - Complex adaptive systems as a theoretical tool in urban planning

Volume 2009, Issue 55
  • ISSN : 1012-280X

Abstract

If systems comprise interrelated parts that interact and mutually influence one another, then a city can be considered a system. This article argues that cities are complex adaptive systems comprising of numerous components and subsystems that through their interactions create novel behaviours including high levels of self organisation. This view of the city as system differs from the so-called systems view of planning which viewed cities as relatively simple systems that can be controlled. As complex adaptive systems cities are able to respond to their environments demonstrating emergent behaviour that is an attribute of the system as a whole. Examples of other complex adaptive systems provide lessons for city development such as the need for constant growth and change if stagnation and death are to be avoided. As too much control can stifle the growth of complexity, the emphasis should rather be creating the appropriate rules and enabling community involvement.


Indien sisteme uit interafhanklike onderdele bestaan wat mekaar wedersyds beïnvloed, dan kan 'n stad as 'n sisteem beskou word. Hierdie artikel stel voor dat stede komplekse aanpassingsisteme is, bestaande uit talle elemente en subsisteme wat deur middel van hul interaksies nuwe gedrag skep insluitend hoë vlakke van self-organisasie. Hierdie beskouing van die stad as sisteem verskil van die sisteembenadering wat stede beskou het as relatiewe eenvoudige stelsels wat beheer kon word. Stede, as komplekse aanpassingsisteme kan op hul omgewings reageer en veranderende gedrag toon, 'n eienskap van die sisteem as geheel. Voorbeelde van ander komplekse aanpassingsisteme stel beginsels vir stedelike ontwikkeling, soos die belangrikheid van konstante groei en verandering indien hul stagnasie en die dood wil vermy. Die ontwikkeling van kompleksiteit kan beperk word deur te veel beheer, daarom behoort die klem eerder op die daarstelling van toepaslike reëls en gemeenskapsbetrokkenheid te wees.


Haeba ditsela tsena di na le dikarolo tse sebedisanang, tse sebedisanang ha mmoho le ho tshwaetsana ka katamelano, ka mokgwa o jwalo motsesetoropo o ka tadingwa e le mokgwa kapa tsela. Pampiri ena e hlahisa hore metse ya ditoropo ke ditsela tsa dibaka tsa bokitlwaetso e nang le dintho tse ngata ka hara yona le ditselana tse nyenyane tseo ka mekgwa e metjha ya tshebedisano ho kenyeletsa le maemo a phahameng a boitlhophiso. Tjhadimo ena ya motse wa setoropo e le tsela e fapaneng le seo ho thweng ke ditsela tsa tjhadimo tsa moralo tse tadimang metse lya ditoropo e le ditselana (ditsamaiso) feela tse ke keng tsa laolwa. Metse ya ditoropo jwalo ka ditsela tsa dibaka tsa boitlwaetso e kgona ho arabela ditikolohong tsa tsona di bontsha tsela e ntjha eo e leng letshwao la tsamaiso yohle. Mehlala ya ditsamaiso tsa dibaka tsa boitlwaetso di fana ka dithuto bakeng sa ntshetsopele ya motse wa setoropo e leng ntho e kang tlhoko ya kgolo le phetoho haeba ho tlameha hore ho thibelwe ho ema nnqa e le nngwe le lona lefu. Ereka ha taelo e senyekgenyekge e ka thibela kgolo ya dibaka, toboketso e mpe e be yona e etse kapa e bope melao e nepahetseng esita le ho kgontsha ho hore baahi (setjhaba) ba be le hona ho ikakgela ka setotswana.

Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/sm_town/2009/55/EJC108698
2009-12-01
2019-09-19

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error