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Abstract

Heat stress is one of the most important environmental factors that have challenged poultry production worldwide. Negative effects of heat stress on broilers and laying hens range from reduced growth and egg production to diminished carcass, egg quality, and immune function. In addition, there is concern about the negative effect of heat stress on bird comfort. Much information has been obtained about the effects of heat stress on the performance and immune response of poultry (broilers and laying hens). However, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms associated with its effects, such as the comfort and well-being of birds in heat stress conditions, is limited. Intervention strategies have been proposed to deal with heat stress, which has different approaches. Environmental management (such as the design of breeding halls, ventilation, sprinklers, shading, etc.) and nutritional arrangements can be mentioned. Diet manipulation (adjustment of diet according to the metabolic conditions of birds), the inclusion of dietary additives (antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, probiotics, prebiotics, plant essential oils, etc.), and enrichment of drinking water with Electrolyte supplements are as follows. However, most interventions have variable or inconsistent effectiveness. Recently, new approaches have been explored, including the genetic selection of heat-resistant breeds. However, these potential opportunities, while promising, still require further research.

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